operator-article-04

OpeRATOR Publication from Johns Hopkins University

Scientists from the prestigious Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine have used OpeRATOR to develop a workflow to map O-glycosylated sites on proteins in very complex samples. O-glycoproteins are notoriously difficult to study due to the low abundance, high structural heterogeneity and low stability. Previous approaches using affinity enrichment or engineered cell culture systems either lack efficiency or are ill-suited forO-glycoproteomic studies of complex samples.

In the workflow developed by Weiming Yang and colleagues, protein samples such as serum or kidney tissue were digested with trypsin, immobilized onto beads through the N-terminus and treated with OpeRATOR and SialEXO. OpeRATOR is an endoprotease and derived from the gut commensal bacteria Akkermansia muciniphila that specifically cleaves peptides and proteins N-terminally of O-glycosylated serine or threonine residues. Therefore, only O-glycopeptides are released from the solid support and were identified using ETD mass spectrometry.

Using this workflow, Yang et al. were able to map over 3000 O-glycosylation sites from human serum, T cells and kidney tissue, almost doubling the number of known O-glycosylation sites. They were also able to detect and quantify the aberrant O-glycosylation patterns in kidney tumors, showcasing the potential use of such methodologies for both basic research and diagnostic purposes.

 

Meet the Scientist

We got the opportunity to interview the first author of the paper, Weiming Yang at Johns Hopkins University.

 

Weiming Yang

Tell us about yourself?
I am a Research Associate in Mass Spectrometry Core Facility in the Center for Biomarker Discovery and Translation (www.biomarkercenter.org) of the Johns Hopkins University. The Mass Spectrometry Core Facility carries large-scale proteomics with particular emphasis on protein glycosylation on proteome scale to elucidate functions of glycoproteins on biology and disease. Before this position, I was a postdoc fellow in the same lab and worked on innovative glycoproteomics methods and HIV research. My interest in protein O-linked glycosylation started from every beginning at Hopkins that I was able to identify an O-linked glycosylation site in HIV gp120 from the infectious virion. Later on, I developed a series of glycoproteomic methods to study protein N- and O-linked glycosylation. The development of novel glycoproteomic methodologies led to new areas toward the discovery of the biomarker for HIV reservoir and new insight into cancer biology.

 

What is new with the ExoO method you have developed?
The major advantage of EXoO is its applicability to analyze clinical samples that is a breakthrough and central to reveal the significance of protein O-linked glycosylation in diseases. Using EXoO, now, scientists can start to gain new insight into their biological systems regarding O-linked glycoproteins. O-linked glycoproteins are ubiquitous on the cell surface and extracellular environment that is highly relevant to new treatment for diseases and diagnostics. Also, the EXoO is advantageous to analyze mucin-type O-linked glycoproteins that cannot be easily analyzed by conventional methods. The EXoO method identifies a large number of O-linked glycosylation sites in the sample that may be easily identified by using other methods such as various enrichments coupled with ETD-MS/MS.

 

How did you perform the analysis prior to this method?
We tried to use the same solid phase method to immobilize the peptides but released O-glycopeptides using beta-elimination to study site of protein O-linked glycosylation. Beta-elimination is a chemical reaction that can tag the site of protein O-linked glycosylation but give some background release of peptides from the solid support. We tried ETD-MS/MS for O-linked glycopeptide analysis but the number of identification is lower than the use of the current method using EXoO to release the O-glycopeptides.

 

What are the benefits of applying Operator in the workflow?
The OpeRATOR enzyme is a key component in the workflow. The high specificity of OpeRATOR enabled release of site-specific O-linked glycopeptides from solid phase support. Therefore, the resulting glycopeptides are relatively pure for improved identification.

 

What can you tell us about what you currently are working on?
Currently, we are applying the method to study different diseases including cancers and HIV reservoir.

 

How would you describe the impact of OpeRATOR on the O-glycan field?
The discovery of OpeRATOR changes of the game in the field of O-linked glycoproteomics. It makes the analysis of large-scale and site-specific O-linked glycoproteome in clinical samples feasible. For O-glycans, the specificity of OpeRATOR is not completely clear that will need further investigation. O-glycans have many different structures. The glycomic methods may still be the best way to go.

 

What are your thoughts on the future of O-glycan analysis?
EXoO and OpeRATOR provide unique research tools to identify the site of O-linked glycosylation. So far, the evidence supports that core 1 Gal-GalNAc structure can be studied by the use of OpeRATOR. Glycomic method focus on the identification of all different O-glycan structures with linkage and quantitative information. In the future, the structures of O-linked glycans on the specific sites on the proteins can be revealed in a single workflow.

 

OpeRATOR-1200px

For more information on OpeRATOR go the the following pages:

 

The full text paper is available online:
OpeRATOR_vit_Kant_500px

Poster Presentations at PEGS Europe 2018

IMG_0337 2
This week, scientists from Genovis are presenting two poster at the Protein Engineering Summit in Lisbon, Portugal. The posters cover our O-glycan specific endoprotease Operator and the recently launched FabRICATOR-HPLC column for automated antibidy subunit generation. Check out the poster abstracts below:

An O-glycan Specific Endoprotease with Applications in Glycoprotein Analysis using LC-MS

Helen Nyhlen, Maria Nordgren, Stephan Björk, Rolf Lood, Fredrik Leo, Fredrik Olsson
Genovis AB, Sweden

Changes in protein glycosylation may have an impact on the structure and function of a glycoprotein and O-glycosylation has drawn more and more attention for its roles in a wide range of biological processes. Characterization of glycosylation is of growing importance for the development and quality control of recombinant glycoprotein drugs and biosimilars. The study of O-linked glycosylation within the field of glycoproteomics is however challenging due to complicated sample preparation, difficult analytical procedures and the lack of O-glycan specific enzymes.

An O-glycan specific protease originating from the mucin degrading bacteria Akkermansia muciniphila has been described previously. The enzyme is dependent on the presence of O-glycans for digestion and hydrolyzes the peptide bond N-terminally to O-glycosylated serine and threonine residues. This feature can be used for the generation of intact O-glycopeptides to study site occupancy and composition of O-glycans in various biologic samples. We present here workflows that enabled determination of O-glycan sites and composition for O-glycosylated biopharmaceuticals and for proteins in human serum.

The O-linked glycosylation sites of biopharmaceuticals were assessed by treatment with PNGaseF, sialidases, O-protease and/or trypsin overnight prior LC/MS. The unique MS/MS peptides obtained revealed and defined the O-glycosylated threonine and serine residues. Enrichment of O-glycoproteins from human serum was achieved in native conditions using an affinity binding resin for O-glycan protein based on agarose beads with immobilized inactive O-protease. The complex protein sample was desialylated during the incubation step for binding. Bound proteins were then eluted by urea and treated with PNGaseF, active O-protease and/or trypsin followed by RP-C18 or HILIC separation and ESI-QTOF/MS analysis. The resin displayed high affinity for core 1 mucin-type glycans. With this workflow peptides and O-glycopeptides, with site-specific information, from several serum proteins were identified.

To summarize, using the characteristics of the O-protease and the O-glycoprotein affinity binding resin, strategies for the characterization of O-glycosylated proteins from pure and complex protein samples have been developed. The O-protease and the O-glycoprotein binding resin are potentially useful tools for deep characterization of O-glycoproteins.

 

Rapid On-column Digestion for Automated Monoclonal Antibody Analysis

Stephan Björk, Andreas Nägeli, Maria Nordgren, Linda Andersson, Helen Nyhlen, Jonathan Sjögren, Fredrik Olsson
Genovis AB, Lund, Sweden

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and other IgG-based biopharmaceuticals are a fast-growing market. The inherent heterogeneity of such biologics necessitates detailed characterization by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) during development and production. While bottom-up peptide mapping is still the gold standard for analysis of critical quality attributes, such approaches are resource and time intensive in terms of both data acquisition and analysis. Top-down and middle-down approaches are therefore gaining in popularity. Antibody subunit analysis has become a widely accepted analytical strategy for rapid characterization of therapeutic antibodies and related products. The IdeS enzyme specifically digests IgG just below the hinge, generating F(ab’)2 and Fc/2 fragments. Reduction of disulfide bonds yields fragments of 23-25kDa in size which are amenable to high-resolution mass spectrometry. The IdeS based middle-level LC-MS workflow therefore enables the analysis of multiple antibody quality attributes such as glycosylation, oxidation, and C-terminal lysine clipping.

Here we present a rapid and automatable solution for antibody subunit generation in an HPLC column format. FabRICATOR (IdeS) enzyme was immobilized on the column to allow for automated middle-level analysis in a 2D-HPLC setup. The mAbs are digested on-column in the first dimension and the resulting subunits are separated and analyzed in the second dimension by RP-HPLC. This could be achieved with minor modifications to an HPLC-MS setup and potentially be connected directly to a bioreactor for automated monitoring of an on-going mAb production. The column tolerates continuous operation at 37°C for >10 days without a significant decrease in digestion performance and delivers consistent results for Fc glycan analysis during the entire period of operation. Additionally, other critical quality attributes such as Fab glycosylation and lysine clipping could be monitored. FabRICATOR-HPLC provides a fast solution for antibody subunit generation while reducing sample handling errors and increasing throughput.

SmartEnzymes™ in Multiplexed Middle-Down MS for targeted structure analysis

October 18, 2018 | Applications, References |

Blogg_Multiplexed_O

 

 In a recent article by Srzentic et al. (2018) the authors present a multiplexed middle-down MS workflow with improved performance for targeted protein structure analysis. Using GingisKHAN for antibody digestion, the authors analysed the F(ab) subunits of a therapeutic mAb. By implementing spectral and transient averaging of mass spectra across several LC-MS experiments, the authors revealed valuable information on chain pairing in the mAb. 

 

To make the analysis, the therapeutic mAb trastuzumab was digested above the hinge using the GingisKHAN enzyme to generate intact F(ab) subunits. Intact myoglobin was subjected to analysis in a top-down MS approach to benchmark the workflow. The GingisKHAN-generated F(ab) subunits were then analysed using the middle-down MS workflow to compare the performance of data averaging approaches.

 

The results show the performances of spectral and transient averaging for tandem mass spectra as separate software tools for structural protein analysis. The transient averaging provided the most extensive sequence coverage for the F(ab) subunits, followed by spectral averaging. Furthermore, utilizing the multiplexed middle-down MS workflow for subunit analysis, the authors detected low-abundance branched product ions revealing valuable information about the light and heavy chain connectivity.

 

GingisKHAN® (Kgp enzyme) is a cysteine protease that digests human IgG1 at a specific site above the hinge region. The enzyme generates intact Fc and Fab subunits in 60 minutes.

 
Learn more about GingisKHAN

 
Srzentic et al., 2018. Multiplexed Middle-Down Mass Spectrometry Reveals Light and Heavy Chain Connectivity in a Monoclonal Antibody

Antibody Sequence Analysis using GingisKHAN® and FabRICATOR®

September 28, 2018 | Applications, References |

Sequence Analysis

In an article by Luca Fornelli & Kristina Srzentic et al. recently published in Analytical Chemistry the authors present a workflow for antibody sequence determination by combining top-down and middle-down LC/MS. The authors analyzed the therapeutic antibody rituximab in its intact and fragmented form, using FabRICATOR and GingisKHAN to generate antibody subunits. By combining the performance of multiple ion activation techniques and a new software tool with top-level and middle-level strategies, the authors achieved extensive sequence coverage and obtained valuable information on key quality attributes.

Rituximab was fragmented using members of the SmartEnzymes™ family for the generation of various antibody subunits. GingisKHAN was used for generating intact Fc and Fab subunits by site-specific cleavage of IgG1 above the hinge region. In order to obtain antibody subunits Fc/2, Fd and LC the authors used FabRICATOR-digestion followed by reduction. The intact antibody and the antibody subunits were analyzed using reversed phase LC/MS coupled with three separate ion activation techniques, and analyzed using a new software tool for fragment ion deconvolution.

The complementing features of the ion activation techniques provided high quality information for a low number of LC/MS experiments. The authors achieved sequence coverage equivalent to what is obtainable with bottom-up strategies. In addition, the authors were able to analyze quality attributes such as PTMs, chain pairing and intact antibody mass determination – properties otherwise lost after extended proteolysis. These results highlight the benefits of combining top-level and middle-level strategies for applications currently performed by bottom-level strategies.

GingisKHAN® (Kgp enzyme) is a cysteine protease that digests human IgG1 at a specific site above the hinge region. The enzyme generates intact Fc and Fab subunits in 60 minutes.

Learn more about GingisKHAN

Fornelli et. al., 2018. Accurate Sequence Analysis of a Monoclonal Antibody by Top-Down and Middle-Down Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry Applying Multiple Ion Activation Techniques.

FabRICATOR® in service for in-depth 2D-LC MS profiling of therapeutic mAbs

Blogg_FabRICATOR_Workflow
 
In an article by Stroll et al. (2018), the authors demonstrate a striking in-depth characterization of three therapeutic mAbs, achieved by combining FabRICATOR® (IdeS) digestion with an online two-dimensional LC-MS approach. The authors generate a highly resolved separation and detection of FabRICATOR-digested N-glycosylated mAb subunits by implementing Active Solvent Modulation (ASM), a method for valve-based effluent dilution between the first and second dimension separations.

Multidimensional Liquid Chromatography constitutes a powerful technology for in-depth profiling of therapeutic proteins, capable of generating rapid and highly resolved separations. The authors demonstrate the advantages of implementing ASM in an online 2D-LC system for deep profiling of antibody glycosylations, subjecting mAbs to FabRICATOR digestion followed by HILIC x RP separation and ESI Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) detection.

Three therapeutic antibodies displaying diverse N-glycosylation patterns were submitted to digestion using FabRICATOR for a single site-specific proteolytic cleavage below the hinge, generating Fc/2 and F(ab’)2 fragments. Further reduction of the interchain disulphide bonds of the F(ab’)2 subunit was carried out on the FabRICATOR-digested samples for the additional generation of LC and Fd fragments.

Implementing the ASM method on antibody subunits, the authors achieved a significant increase in detection sensitivity for Fc/2 and Fd fragments, without detectable breakthrough, otherwise associated with larger loading volumes in the second-dimension separation. Furthermore, the authors demonstrated the resolving power of HILIC x RP for analyzing the extent of glycosylations present in heavily glycosylated mAbs, the method showing increased separation and detection for both high and low abundant glycan species, compared to 2D-LC combining CEX and RP separations.

FabRICATOR is a protease with a single digestion site below the hinge of IgG. The enzyme is widely used in middle-level analytical workflows for characterization of antibody based biopharmaceuticals.

 
Learn more about FabRICATOR

 
Stoll, D.R. et al., 2018. Development of Comprehensive Online Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry using Hydrophilic Interaction and Reversed-Phase Separations for Rapid and Deep Profiling of Therapeutic Antibodies. Analytical Chemistry, pp.acs.analchem.8b00776–9.

Introducing Rob Horsefield

Rob portrait

Genovis is expanding its sales and marketing organization at its Lund headquarters and has hired Rob Horsefield as Sales & Business Development Manager. Rob has multiple years of experience in the industry from sales in analytical chemistry, pharmaceutical development and protein chemistry.

We are happy and proud to have you on board, Rob. Welcome to Genovis!

 

Tell us a bit about yourself.
I moved to Sweden in 2004 from the UK and live outside Lund with my Swedish wife and two children. I am now a Swedish citizen and fluent in Swedish. In my spare time I am a passionate road cyclist and enjoy long rides with my friends.

 

If you were to describe yourself using only one word – what would that word be?

Trustworthy.

 

Tell us a bit about your previous working life.

I have a background in protein biochemistry and did my PhD in membrane protein crystallography. After that I worked at Gothenburg University for four years and then AstraZeneca for three and a half years. But most recently I was with Agilent Technologies for six years selling their analytical instruments in Southern Sweden and more recently liquid chromatography as their product specialist for the Nordics.

 

What will your main focus be here at Genovis?

My focus is to be the trusted associate at Genovis for our customers. I believe in always putting our customers first and securing their satisfaction. I like to work in a structured manner, pay attention to details and be on-time.

 

What do you believe will be the biggest opportunity in your new position as a Senior Application and Market Area Manager?

I hope we can leverage my experiences in protein biochemistry research, the biopharma market and LC/LC-MS instrument sales to grow Genovis’s business in Europe and Asia, and further expand our customer base.

 

Four Quick Questions:

Coffee or tea?

Tea, very strong with milk. But not fruit tea. And I never drink coffee, no, really.

 

Aerosmith or Depeche Mode?

Depeche Mode of course.

 

Ice cream or candy?

Both please, lots of.

 

Cricket or Rugby?

Rugby for sure, but there is still a small space left in my heart for cricket too.

OpeRATOR™ Decodes O-glycans; Publication by FDA and Genovis

Screen Shot 2018-07-03 at 23.59.42

 

Scientist at the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, have, in collaboration with Genovis, developed a method for analyzing O-glycosylated proteins based on a solid phase chemical modification and followed by OpeRATOR digestion. Using this method, up to 8-fold more O-glycosites were discovered as compared to previously reported data.

 

The method uses an on-bead system to capture tryptic peptides deglycosylated using PNGaseF from a glycoprotein mixture. First, the tryptic peptides are bound via the N-terminus to the beads, and subsequent modifications to the sugars can be carried out. Secondly, the OpeRATOR enzyme is applied to digest the peptide bond, N-terminal of the O-glycosylated serine or threonine. In this way, only O-glycosylated peptides will be cleaved off and enriched. The OpeRATOR digested peptides were then analyzed using LC-MS/MS.

 

OpeRATOR was launched at the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 2017 and the FDA team quickly became interested in this novel tool. The enzyme originates from Akkermansia muciniphila and has been engineered by Genovis for biotech applications and analytical workflows and denoted OpeRATOR. The enzyme binds to musin type O-glycans and cuts the protein backbone, N-terminally of the O-glycosylated site. OpeRATOR can be used to study site occupancy and composition of O-glycans on biopharmaceuticals and for O-glycomic workflows.

 

We establish the method on standard glycoproteins, confirming known O- glycosites with high accuracy and confidence, and reveal up to 8-fold more glycosites than previously reported with concomitant increased heterogeneity” (Shuang et al 2018)

 

The paper has been selected Editor’s choice in Analytical Chemistry and is available using the link below:

 

Shuang Yang et al., “Deciphering Protein O‑Glycosylation: Solid-Phase Chemoenzymatic Cleavage and Enrichment,” Analytical Chemistry, June 3, 2018, 1–9, doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.8b01834.

 

More information on OpeRATOR and its applications:

 

https://www.genovis.com/products/enzymes-for-o-glycans/operator/

 

OpeRATOR_vit_Kant_500px
OpeRATOR-1200px
Digested-guide-to-asms-2018

The Digested Guide to ASMS 2018

 

Several researchers have submitted abstracts for ASMS 2018 in San Diego, in which Genovis’ SmartEnzymes have been used. Below is a selection of these abstracts.

To read the poster abstracts, visit the Online Planner for ASMS, and paste the abstract titel in the search field.

Monday June 4 

10:30AM-2:30PM: Poster Session

MP 045 – GlyCLICK

Development of NISTmAb-derived homogeneous antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) standards

Shanhua Lin1; Terry Zhang2; Brian Agnew3; Trina Mouchahoir4; John Schiel4
1Thermo Fisher Scientific, Sunnyvale, CA; 2Thermo Fisher Scientific, San Jose, CA; 3Thermo Fisher Scientific, Eugene, Oregon; 4NIST, Gaithersburg, MD

MP 046 – FabRICATOR

Discovery and confirmation of glucuronylation as a new acidic post-translational modification on therapeutic monoclonal antibodies

Yuetian Yan1; Anita Liu1; Shunhai Wang1; Thomas Daly1; Ning Li1
1Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY

MP 049 – FabRICATOR

Ultrasensitive Characterization of Size and Charge Heterogeneity of Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies by Native Mass Spectrometry

Shunhai Wang1; Yuetian Yan1; Anita Liu1; Thomas Daly1; Ning Li1
1Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY

MP 464 – FabALACTICA

Quantitative UPLC-MSE analysis of disulfide bonds and free sulfhydryls in monoclonal antibodies using IgdE protease assisted digestion

Jeroen de Keijzer1; Peter van Maurik1; Anja Boumeester1; Emile van Corven1; Gideon Oudgenoeg1
1Bioceros, Utrecht, Netherlands

 

Tuesday June 5 

10:30AM-2:30PM: Poster Session

TP 624 – FabRICATOR

Avoiding method induced heterogeneity in the analysis of heterogeneity of monoclonal antibodies using Mass Spectrometry after Single Site Proteolysis

Gideon Oudgenoeg1; Anja Boumeester2; Peter van Maurik2; Jeroen de Keijzer2; Emile van Corven2
1Bioceros, Utrecht, Netherlands; 2Bioceros, Utrecht, Netherlands

 

Wednesday June 6 

10:30AM-2:30PM: Poster Session

WP056 – FabRICATOR

Characterizing and Quantitating Therapeutic Antibody Multimer Degradation Using Affinity Capture Mass

Neha Srikumar1; Wenjing Li1; Robert Tchelepi1; Chen Gu1; Diego Ellerman1; Greg A Lazar1; Yichin Liu1John C. Tran1
1Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA

WP 327  – GingisKHAN

Comprehensive Domain-Specific [Fc vs. Fab] N-glycosylation Analysis of Therapeutic Proteins

Charles Nwosu1; Shuangqi Sally Liu2; Lei Wang2; May Zhu2; Anne Kowal2
1Takeda Pharmaceuticals International Co, Cambridge, MA; 2Takeda Pharmaceuticals International Co., Cambridge, MA

WP 340 – FabULOUS

Analysis of Fragmented Porcine Immunoglobulin G (IgG) by MALDI-MS and UPLC-ESI-MS

HELENE PERREAULT1; Claudia Nelson2
1University of manitoba, Winnipeg; 2University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB

WP 342 – OpeRATOR and GlycOCATCH

A Novel O-glycoprotease with applications in O-glycan Analysis using mass spectrometry

Rolf Lood1, 2; Maria Nordgren1; Fredrik Leo1; Stephan Björk1; Malin Mejáre1Fredrik Olsson1
1Genovis AB, Lund, Sweden; 2Department of Infectious Diseases, Lund University, Lund, Sweden

WP 350 – OpeRATOR

Deciphering complex o-glycosylation: solid-phase chemoenzymatic cleavage and enrichment

Shuang Yang1; Philip Onigman2; Jonathan Sjogren2; Wells W. Wu3; Rong-fong Shen3; John Cipollo1
1LBP, CBER, FDA, Silver Spring, MD; 2Genovis AB Inc., Boston, MA; 3FBR, CBER, FDA, Silver Spring, MD

WP 676 –FabRICATOR, GlycINATOR, IgGZERO

Monitoring Critical Quality Attributes: Core Fucosylation of N-glycans using an Integrated Subunit LC/MS Workflow Method

Nilini S Ranbaduge1; Henry Y Shion1; Ying Qing Yu1; Weibin Chen1
1Waters Corporation, Milford, MA

WP 678 – FabRICATOR

In-depth Characterization of the Heterogeneous Dimerization Interfaces of A Monoclonal Antibody: from Subdomain Level to Residue Level

Yuetian Yan1; Shunhai Wang1Thomas Daly1; Ning Li1
1Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY

W 691 – OpeRATOR, OglyZOR and SialEXO

LC-MS Characterization of Complex Glycoproteins

Amber Peariso1; Jason X. Tang1
1Eli Lilly & Company, Indianapolis, IN

WP 692 – FabRICATOR

Rapid Identity Assays for mAb Development, Production Control and Release

Anja Resemann1; Waltraud Evers1Yue Ju2; Guillaume Tremintin2; Detlev Suckau1
1Bruker Daltonics, Bremen, Germany; 2Bruker Daltonics, Billerica, MA

 

Thursday June 7 

10:10AM-10:30PM: Oral Presentation

Oral Presentation – FabRICATOR

Classification of Plasma Cell Disorders by 21 Tesla FT-ICR Top-Down and Middle-Down MS/MS Analysis of Monoclonal Immunoglobulins in Human Serum

Lidong He1, 2; Lissa C Anderson2; David R Barnidge3; David L Murray4; Surendra Dasari4; Angela Dispenzieri4; Christopher L Hendrickson1, 2; Alan G Marshall1, 2
1Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL; 2National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL; 3The Binding Site, Rochester, MN; 4Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN

 

10:30AM-2:30PM: Poster Session

ThP 003 – FabRICATOR

LC-MS in Combination with Multiple Enzymatic Digestion for Sequence Variant Identification in Support of Cell Line Development

Renpeng Liu1; Lintao Wang1; Alexandru C. Lazar1
1ImmunoGen, Waltham, MA

ThP 017 – GingisKHAN

Consortium for Top-Down Proteomics Inter-laboratory Study for Characterizing Monoclonal Antibodies (mAbs) by Top-Down Mass Spectrometry

Kristina Srzentic1; Luca Fornelli1; Yury Tsybin2; Joseph Loo3; Jeffrey Agar4; Julia Chamot-Rooke5Paul Danis6; Ying Ge7; David Goodlett8; Neil Kelleher1; Ljiljana Pasa Tolic9; Lloyd Smith7; Timothy Toby1; Konstantin Nagornov2; JENNIFER BRODBELT10; Sylvester Greer10; Mathieu Dupré5; David Clarke11; Ziqing Lin7; Kim Haselmann12; Christopher Hendrickson13; Lidong He13; Donald Hunt14; Jared Shaw9; Wendy Sandoval15; Richa Sarin16; Detlev Suckau17; Yuri E.M. van der Burgt18; Norelle Wildburger19; Nicolas L. Young20; Alain Beck21; John Yates22; Jolene Diedric22; Sneha Chatterjee23; Frank Sobott24; Anton Kozhinov2; ALAN G. MARSHALL13; LISSA C. ANDERSON13; Natalia Gasilova25; Laure Menin25; Neil Quebbenamm3; Sung Hwan Yoon26; Josh Hinkle14; Simone Nicolardi18; Matthew V. Holt20; Yunqiu Chen16; Nicholas Schmitt4
1Northwestern University, Evanston, IL; 2Spectroswiss Sàrl, Lausanne, Switzerland; 3UCLA, Los Angeles, CA; 4Northeastern University, Boston, MA; 5Institute Pasteur, Paris, France; 6Eastwoods Consulting, Boylston, MA; 7University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI; 8University of Maryland, Baltimore, Baltimore; 9PNNL, Richland, WA; 10University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX; 11Edinburgh University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom; 12Novo Nordisk, Malov, Denmark; 13National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL; 14University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA; 15Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA; 16Biogen Inc, Cambridge, MA; 17Bruker Daltonik GmbH, Bremen, Germany; 18Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, Netherlands; 19Washington University, St. Louis, St. Louis, MO; 20Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; 21Centre d’immunologie Pierre Fabre, Saint-Julien-en-Genevois, France; 22The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA; 23University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium; 24University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom; 25Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Ch-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland; 26University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD

ThP 028 – FabRICATOR

Top- and Middle-Down CE-ESI-MS Analysis of Intact mAbs Using the ZipChip Coupled to a Fusion Lumos ETD Mass Spectrometer

Tricia C. Ho1; Erik J. Soderblom1; Erin Redman2; Greg M. Waitt1; M. Arthur Moseley1
1Duke University School of Medicine, Proteomics and Metabolomics Shared Resource, Durham, NC; 2908 Devices, Inc., Carrboro, NC

ThP 419 – FabRICATOR

Quantitation of Misincorporations: Strategies and System Suitability

Kathleen Cornelius1; Olga Friese1; Mary Denton2; Jason Rouse2
1Pfizer, Inc, Chesterfield, MO; 2Pfizer Inc., Andover, MA

 

2:30 -2:50 PM: Oral Presentation

Ballroom 20D – FabRICATOR, GingisKHAN, GlycINATOR and IgGZERO

A Suite of Liquid Chromatography Strategies Coupled Online to Top-down High-resolution Mass Spectrometry for Comprehensive Analysis of Antibody Drug Conjugates

Bifan Chen1; Ziqing Lin1; Qingge Xu1; Cexiong Fu2; Qunying Zhang2; Ying Ge1
1University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin; 2Abbvie Inc., North Chicago, IL

Antikropp-klyvning-över-och-under-hinge

Interview with Valegh Faid at LFB Biotechnologies in France

 

Unique enzymatic digestions in study of antibody disulphides

 

Valegh Faid and colleagues at LFB Biotechnologies in France have developed and published an assay to study antibody disulphide bonds using middle-up LC-MS (Faid et al., 2017). The combination of FabRICATOR® for digestion below the hinge and FabALACTICA™ for digestion above the hinge, generated three fragments from a human IgG1 antibody; the hinge peptide, Fab and Fc/2 fragments. These fragments were resolved using RP-HPLC and mass spectrometry and enabled analysis of antibody disulphide bridges and other quality attributes.

 

 

Interview with Valegh Faid, Scientist at LFB and first author of the paper:

 

Why are antibody disulphide bonds important?

 

Disulphide bonds are highly important because of their critical role in the stabilization of protein conformations. Breaking and/or scrambling of disulphide bond occur during manufacturing and storage of biotherapeutics which is a concern in terms of safety and efficacy. The monitoring of these product-derived impurities is mandatory during development operations in order to minimize these forms.

 

How did you come up with the idea to combine FabRICATOR (IdeS) and FabALACTICA (IgdE)?

 

We have been using IdeS for many years in order to cleave IgG’s below the hinge; following DTT reduction, more amenable fragments for RP-HPLC/MS analysis are generated as previously published by our laboratory (Chevreux et al., 2011). This middle-up analysis is fast and very informative regarding the protein sequence integrity and post-translational modifications. However, investigating the oxidative state of disulfide bridges is tricky and often involved a time-consuming peptide mapping in non-reducing conditions.

In this context, IgdE is an interesting enzyme that cleaves specifically IgGs above the hinge and without requiring reducing conditions as papain do. The combination of IdeS and IgdE in non-reducing conditions presents the advantage to generate specifically three fragments i.e. hinge, Fc/2 and Fab that are both easily separated by RP-HPLC and analysed by MS.

 

How does the new enzymatic assay compare to previous methods to study antibody disulphide bonds?

 

Peptide mapping in non-reducing condition is the gold standard to investigate disulphide bonding of biotherapeutics. However, data interpretation is time consuming even if dedicated software to improve the treatment of data has largely improved. Although being slightly less informative than peptide mapping, this combined IdeS/IgdE middle-up approach increases the throughput for the investigation of free thiols and disulphide scrambling. Considering that other CQAs can also be monitored in the same experiment, it should be more applicable to routine use in process optimization, formulation screening and stability studies.

 

Would the assay be used in a QC setting relying solely on liquid chromatography separation?

 

The analytical workflow is robust and requires mere handlings of the antibody samples. Once the identification of each peak of the chromatogram is confirmed by MS, quantitation based on the UV detection is a current practice. Such analytical configuration involving an HPLC and a UV detection is actually common in most of QC labs and thus easily and robustly implementable.

 

How are you implementing this assay at LFB Biotechnologies?

 

This assay is integrated in our portfolio of analytical approaches for the analysis of mAbs currently in development, for process optimisation, batch characterization and stability studies.

 

 

Read more about FabALACTICA and FabRICATOR.

 

References:

 

Chevreux, G. et al., 2011. Fast analysis of recombinant monoclonal antibodies using IdeS proteolytic digestion and electrospray mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem. 15;415(2): pp. 212-4.

 

Faid, V. et al., 2017. Middle-up analysis of monoclonal antibodies after combined IgdE and IdeS hinge proteolysis: Investigation of free sulfhydryls. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 149, pp.541–546.

 

 

KevinCook-social-media-linkedin

Meet Our New Colleague Kevin Cook

May 17, 2018 | Genovis Team |

 

We are happy and proud to have you on board, Kevin. Welcome to Genovis!

 

Tell us a bit about yourself.
Even though a Focused Generalist does not make perfect sense, I think it fits since I have a broad life sciences discovery background with a specificity towards LC-MS and orthogonal technology.

 

If you were to describe yourself using only one word – what would that word be?

Curious.

 

Tell us a bit about your previous working life.

My on-the-job learning experiences, with small and large companies, started with DNA/RNA focused laboratory work, moved into LC-MS to support small molecule pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism, and has migrated into a focus on providing biologics sample preparation technology for LC-MS analysis.

 

What will your main focus be here at Genovis?

On behalf of the Genovis team, I have the pleasure of building relationships with scientists in the western US. I am excited to learn more about the challenges my colleagues in the industry are facing and how our team can help.

 

What do you believe will be the biggest opportunity in your new position as a Senior Application and Market Area Manager?

Genovis has built a customer centric reputation that shows in current products and formats, and how LC-MS scientists are utilizing these tools. Genovis has demonstrated the ability to rapidly respond to customer requests and I am looking forward to helping promote current products while building for the future through customer feedback and collaboratory efforts.

 

4 Quick Questions:

Coffee or tea? 

Coffee, lots of coffee…

 

Aerosmith or Depeche Mode?

At the moment, Eric Church.

 

Ice cream or candy?

Chocolate chip cookies.

 

Soccer or ice hockey?

American football though staying with the question, ice hockey – Chicago Blackhawks.